Tag Archives: errors

Errors In ‘Behind Locked Doors, A History of Papal Elections’ By Frederic J. Baumgartner.

<<  <<  Transferring over from my “Popes and Papacy” Website  >> >>

‘Behind Locked Doors, A History of Papal Elections’
by Frederic J. Baumgartner

ISBN: 1-4039-6962-0, 2003

This was one of my favorite papal books. I liked it so much I have 3 copies so that one is always at hand. I have also had the honor of exchanging a few emails with Prof. Baumgartner. Of late I have become quite perturbed by the number of errors I have found in this book — many of them quite serious.

Page 7: 12th line from bottom. ‘In 401 Innocent I succeeded his father Anastasius I, …’

Not so. A historic misconception but by the 20th century it was known to have been a reference to a spiritual ‘father-son’ relationship, as opposed to a blood connection. Professor Baumgartner should not have propagated this.

< Kind of ironic. Way back, c. 2005, when I first started researching papal history I saw this claim and e-mailed Professor Baumgartner if he had any concrete proof of this. He told me that he was sure that he had, but couldn’t find it right away and that if he found it he would let me know. SMILE. It is OK! >

Page 22: The first sentence of the last paragraph that talks about Stephen III’s 769 decree …

This is a garbled, confused sentence at best. In the end it really falls down flat. Contrary to the claim, there is nothing similar, whatsoever, between the 769 and 1059 edicts. The statement about limiting candidates to the cardinal bishops … is, alack, wrong. Not limited.

Page 34: About 2/3 down. “… senior cardinal-deacon gave him his name, …”

Professor Baumgartner might have been having an off-day when he wrote this page (and I know how that goes). This statement about the protodeacon appears to be a ‘mind-warp’ — but I could be wrong. As we all know, the protodeacon still has the HONOR of announcing to the world, for the first time, who the new pope is and the name by which he wishes to be known. But, other than that … the protodeacon, nor anybody else for that matter, ever had the prerogative to tell a new pope as to what name he could assume. So, I can’t figure out this statement.

Page 34: Towards the very bottom. “… delegated them to choose Pope Honorius III, …”

Lets get the easy part out of the way. No, the committee of two was NOT delegated to choose ‘Honorius III’ as is stated! The committee of two was delegated to choose the next pope and they chose Cardinal Cencio Savelli who opted to be Honorius III. There is a difference. The description of this whole election in Perugia is jumbled and badly portrayed. Yes, there were only two cardinals in Perugia when Innocent III died. The book implies that the other cardinals, NOT in Perugia, delegated those two to choose the next pope. That does not appear to be
what really happened. Fifteen other cardinals were in Perugia two days later to begin the election. That is not adequately portrayed, thus creating the wrong impression.

Page 37: Middle of the first paragraph. “… eleven had been identified as favoring the emperor, …”

There was no emperor at that time! The Viterbo election/conclave being discussed happened during the 62 year interregnum following Emperor Frederick II’s death in 1250. At this point there wasn’t even a presumptive emperor, the last of Frederick’s line, from the Hohenstauffens dynasty having been recently killed — as stated earlier in that paragraph.

Page 40: 9th line. “… and after five days …”

NO! After eight days (on the ninth day of the conclave). Read Ubi periculum. Three days of standard fare. Then five days of one dish per meal. THEN the bread, water and a little wine diet. Three and five = eight. This is careless.

Page 41: 2nd line, 2nd full paragraph. “… found themselves confined in conclave.”

Nope. There was no conclave at this election, Ubi periculum having been suspended — as spelled out in the previous paragraph! Oops.

Page 42: 9th line down. “… who met in the palace of Santa Sabina, …”

Oops. A mix up with two elections hence. This one was in Viterbo, again. It was held at the Papal Palace. Not in Santa Sabina. Santa Sabina was never the site for a papal election or conclave, though the the professor thinks otherwise — twice. See page 43 below.

Page 42: 7 lines up in main para. “A month after his election …”

The Sicilian uprising (a.k.a Sicilian Vespers) took place in March 28, 1282. Martin IV was elected Feb. 22, 1281. That is ONE YEAR, ONE MONTH … not one month. That is two bloopers in one paragraph. 

Page 43: 1st line in 1st full para. “… took place again in Santa Sabina.”

 Wrong! Two errors in one sentence. Previous one was not held in Santa Sabina, nor was this one. In reality NO papal election (or conclave) has ever been held in Santa Sabina. In this case, the election was held in the deceased pope’s new palace, Corte Savella, which was NEAR Santa Sabina. Near … doesn’t mean ‘in.’ Not sure what the professor was thinking or doing.

Page 43: 2nd line, last para. “… appointed only one cardinal, Benedetto Caetani, …”

Wrong! Another ‘twofer’ — two errors in one sentence. The second ‘twofer’ on the page. Benedetto Caetani was created by Martin IV in April 1281. He took part in the election of Nicholas IV. Nicholas IV created six cardinals. Three lines later he talks about the two Colonna cardinals. Nicholas created one of them.

Page 60: 3rd line from bottom. “… the day after Urban’s death.”

Urban VI died October 15, 1389. His successor Boniface IX was installed November 2, 1389. If the conclave started October 16, per the author, this would have been a 18 day conclave. Most agree that it was not that long. Others, going by Dr. Francis A. Burkle-Young’s “Passing the Keys,” put the start date for this conclave at October 25 … i.e., consistent with the ten day lead time mandated by Ubi periculum. That makes it a 8 day conclave. That makes more sense.

Page 71: Middle of page. “Ten days later, on April 4, 1454 …”

April 4, 1455. This is a typo. My heart bleeds. I do this all the time. But, nonetheless, it is wrong.

Page 71: Middle of page. “… serve as the site for all but six conclaves to the present.”

Talking as of ‘1454’ which is mentioned at the start of this sentence. But from ALL that I can see, there have only been FIVE (5) conclaves outside of the Vatican as of 1454 — not six, viz. 1799-1800 Venice and four at the Quirinal, 1823 to 1846. Note, that this is another TWOFER. There was no conclave in 1454. 1455.

Page 140: 13th line from bottom. “… took the name Leo XI to honor Leo X, his great-uncle.”

WRONG. Maternal uncle, not great-uncle. This error got carried over to MY “Pope Names” book!

Page 210: 6th line from bottom. “… became a priest under Pius X.”

NO he didn’t. He became a priest 20 years prior to Pius X! This erroneous statement screwed up some of my work. Now that I realize how inaccurate this book is, regret ever reading it — which is a shame because it was a good read.

Page 218: last sentence of the 2nd paragraph that starts: “They were an international group …”

The claim that this consistory [i.e., December 15, 1958] created the first cardinals from Mexico, the Philippines and Japan is WRONG. The first from Japan and the Philippines came two consistories later in March 1960. Same is true for the first native African cardinal. So three of the four claims made in that sentence are wrong.

Page 224: 5th line of the 1st paragraph that says: “… camerlengo, the first non-Italian to hold the office …”

From the book. Click to ENLARGE and read.

Not so! Way back, c. 1155, we had an English camerlengoBoso Breakspear who is believed to have been related to the pope of the same last name, Hadrian IV  (#170, 1154-1159).

Here is the entry in the 1917 Catholic Encyclopedia for Boso that clearly states he was camerlengo. So this is another major faux pas.

There are others. They can wait. I just don’t have the time to document
them all in one go. SORRY.

PBS Special “The Secrets of Saint John Paul” — My Take.

by Anura Guruge


Click to access PBS Webpage and view full episode.


Click to access Wikipedia entry for Anna Teresa Tymieniecka.

First and foremost there are two things wrong with the TITLE of this PBS special. The title for the pope is dead WRONG! He is “Saint Pope John Paul II” or “Pope Saint John Paul II“. It is important that ‘Pope’ is in the title along with Saint. Plus, and this is important, he is NOT, and I REPEAT, NOT “John Paul”. He is, was and will always be “John Paul II“. There is another Pope John Paul who will one day be a Saint. They actually got this pope’s name dead wrong too! When talking about his election in 1978, and then Cardinal Karol Jzef Wojtyla paying his homage to the new pope, they referred to the pope as “John Paul”. NO. He was NEVER, EVER “John Paul”. From the moment he accepted the papacy he was “John Paul I”. These are small but important things that PBS should have got right.

Then the title claims “secrets” — in plural. But from what I can see this program is all about his relationship with Polish Anna Teresa Tymieniecka (who by the way had a Hanover, New Hampshire connection). The program tries to insinuate that it was a platonic relationship with no physical element. But there is no proof either way. Plus popes are notorious for their scandalous very intimate relationship with women, married women as well, over the millennia. So in the scheme of things this is not such a big deal.

What would have been more interesting is the oft stated belief that the Pope was a widow or a divorcee! He supposedly having been married, young, ahead of WW II.

So bit of a disappointing and tedious program. Just one SECRET and it is not that intriguing unless there is proof that she was actually his mistress in the accepted connotation of such relationships. 

Related posts:
>> “Secrets of the Vatican” special.

++++ Search ‘pope’ for MANY other posts >>>>

++++ Check Category ‘religion’ >>>>

by Anura Guruge

‘Accelerated Mobile Page’ (AMP) Errors, Per Google, On WordPress.com Blogs …

by Anura Guruge

Click to ENLARGE.

Per WordPress.com this is a ‘known issue’ … is being addressed … mainly a Google ‘aberration’ … nothing we as WP bloggers can do … JUST IGNORE IT!

I spent about 30 minutes chatting with them, online, about this. The above was basically the eventual conclusion.

So thought I would share it with you so you could save yourself some time. Hope it helps.

Related Posts:
 Search ‘wordpress’ for  other related posts >>>>

by Anura Guruge

Robert Irion’s July 2013 Article In ‘National Geographic’ Rather Lax With The Facts!

Anura Guruge, June 8, 2013.

Anura Guruge

Related Post:
>> The June ‘National Geographic’‘Maxed Out Mount Everest’ … — May 25, 2013.

IrionarticleJuly 2013

I am, and have been for decades, a great fan of ‘National Geographic’. It is one of the few magazines that we continue to subscribe and do so without fail.

I dived into the July 2013 cover story about the ‘Solar System’ as this is very germane to the work I have been doing on 4 Vesta and Comet ISON (C/2012 S1).

There is at least one huge howler that tungsten and titanium nitride could only have been created by the Sun. WRONG.

So, for the first time in my life I wrote a letter to the Nat. G. Editors.

Check it out:

Click to ENLARGE and read.

Click to ENLARGE and read.


More ‘Cuteness’ At The Expense Of Young Ladies By ‘The Laconia Daily Sun’?


Anura Guruge

Related post from yesterday:
>> Typo or just ‘cuteness’ from ‘The Sun’ — Mar. 26, 2013.

Click to access Wednesday, March 27, 2013, 'The Laconia Daily Sun' with this story on page 2.

Click to access Wednesday, March 27, 2013, ‘The Laconia Daily Sun’ with this story on page 2.

Yes, it is ‘funny’ in that I am sure that Amanda Know probably knows more than she has let on.

But, is this a genuine Freudian slip by ‘The Sun’ or is it another attempt at trying to be ‘clever’ and cute at the expense of yet another ‘fallen’ young lady — though circumstances, are of course, very different.

Yes, it could be another typo and since my middle name is ‘typo’ I have utmost respect for those. But isn’t this why newspapers employ editors?